Agroforestry for adaption and mitigation to climate change
Agroforestry is increasingly recognized as a land management system that can serve as a response option for both climate change adaptation and mitigation, while addressing many of the challenges that smallholder farmers are facing. Agroforestry can generate multiple livelihood and environmental benefits, as it can help to mitigate climate change and help farmers to adapt to extreme and variable weather (IPCC, 2019). Agroforestry supports tree-related ecosystem services, such as regulation of water and sediment flows, carbon and nutrient cycling in soils and it provides habitat for biodiversity. This leads to increased soil fertility, reduced soil erosion and flood and pest control. Benefits of agroforestry to smallholder farmers include increased farm productivity and reduction of external inputs such as conventional fertilizers and chemicals for pest management, leading to increased income.